§ 25.7520-3 Limitation on the application of section 7520.
Federal Code of Regulations
§ 25.7520-3 Limitation on the application of section 7520.
(a) Internal Revenue Code sections to which section 7520 does not apply. Section 7520 of the Internal Revenue Code does not apply for purposes of—
(1) Part I, subchapter D of subtitle A (section 401 et. seq.), relating to the income tax treatment of certain qualified plans. (However, section 7520 does apply to the estate and gift tax treatment of certain qualified plans and for purposes of determining excess accumulations under section 4980A);
(2) Sections 72 and 101(b), relating to the income taxation of life insurance, endowment, and annuity contracts, unless otherwise provided for in the regulations under sections 72, 101, and 1011 (see, particularly, §§ 1.101-2(e)(1)(iii)(b)(2), and 1.1011-2(c), Example 8);
(4) Section 457, relating to the valuation of deferred compensation, unless otherwise provided for in the regulations under section 457;
(5) Sections 3121(v) and 3306(r), relating to the valuation of deferred amounts, unless otherwise provided for in the regulations under those sections;
(6) Section 6058, relating to valuation statements evidencing compliance with qualified plan requirements, unless otherwise provided for in the regulations under section 6058;
(7) Section 7872, relating to income and gift taxation of interest-free loans and loans with below-market interest rates, unless otherwise provided for in the regulations under section 7872; or
(8) Section 2702(a)(2)(A), relating to the value of a nonqualified retained interest upon a transfer of an interest in trust to or for the benefit of a member of the transferor's family; and
(9) Any other section of the Internal Revenue Code to the extent provided by the Internal Revenue Service in revenue rulings or revenue procedures. (See §§ 601.201 and 601.601 of this chapter).
(b) Other limitations on the application of section 7520 —
(1) In general —
(i) Ordinary beneficial interests. For purposes of this section:
(A) An ordinary annuity interest is the right to receive a fixed dollar amount at the end of each year during one or more measuring lives or for some other defined period. A standard section 7520 annuity factor for an ordinary annuity interest represents the present worth of the right to receive $1.00 per year for a defined period, using the interest rate prescribed under section 7520 for the appropriate month. If an annuity interest is payable more often than annually or is payable at the beginning of each period, a special adjustment must be made in any computation with a standard section 7520 annuity factor.
(B) An ordinary income interest is the right to receive the income from or the use of property during one or more measuring lives or for some other defined period. A standard section 7520 income factor for an ordinary income interest represents the present worth of the right to receive the use of $1.00 for a defined period, using the interest rate prescribed under section 7520 for the appropriate month. However, in the case of certain gifts made after October 8, 1990, if the donor does not retain a qualified annuity, unitrust, or reversionary interest, the value of any interest retained by the donor is considered to be zero if the remainder beneficiary is a member of the donor's family. See § 25.2702-2.
(C) An ordinary remainder or reversionary interest is the right to receive an interest in property at the end of one or more measuring lives or some other defined period. A standard section 7520 remainder factor for an ordinary remainder or reversionary interest represents the present worth of the right to receive $1.00 at the end of a defined period, using the interest rate prescribed under section 7520 for the appropriate month.
(ii) Certain restricted beneficial interests. A restricted beneficial interest is an annuity, income, remainder, or reversionary interest that is subject to any contingency, power, or other restriction, whether the restriction is provided for by the terms of the trust, will, or other governing instrument or is caused by other circumstances. In general, a standard section 7520 annuity, income, or remainder factor may not be used to value a restricted beneficial interest. However, a special section 7520 annuity, income, or remainder factor may be used to value a restricted beneficial interest under some circumstances. See paragraphs (b)(2)(v) Example 5 and (b)(4) of this section, which illustrate situations in which special section 7520 actuarial factors are needed to take into account limitations on beneficial interests. See § 25.7520-1(c) for requesting a special factor from the Internal Revenue Service.
(iii) Other beneficial interests. If, under the provisions of this paragraph (b), the interest rate and mortality components prescribed under section 7520 are not applicable in determining the value of any annuity, income, remainder, or reversionary interest, the actual fair market value of the interest (determined without regard to section 7520) is based on all of the facts and circumstances if and to the extent permitted by the Internal Revenue Code provision applicable to the property interest.
(2) Provisions of governing instrument and other limitations on source of payment —
(i) Annuities. A standard section 7520 annuity factor may not be used to determine the present value of an annuity for a specified term of years or the life of one or more individuals unless the effect of the trust, will, or other governing instrument is to ensure that the annuity will be paid for the entire defined period. In the case of an annuity payable from a trust or other limited fund, the annuity is not considered payable for the entire defined period if, considering the applicable section 7520 interest rate on the valuation date of the transfer, the annuity is expected to exhaust the fund before the last possible annuity payment is made in full. For this purpose, it must be assumed that it is possible for each measuring life to survive until age 110. For example, for a fixed annuity payable annually at the end of each year, if the amount of the annuity payment (expressed as a percentage of the initial corpus) is less than or equal to the applicable section 7520 interest rate at the date of the transfer, the corpus is assumed to be sufficient to make all payments. If the percentage exceeds the applicable section 7520 interest rate and the annuity is for a definite term of years, multiply the annual annuity amount by the Table B term certain annuity factor, as described in § 25.7520-1(c)(1), for the number of years of the defined period. If the percentage exceeds the applicable section 7520 interest rate and the annuity is payable for the life of one or more individuals, multiply the annual annuity amount by the Table B annuity factor for 110 years minus the age of the youngest individual. If the result exceeds the limited fund, the annuity may exhaust the fund, and it will be necessary to calculate a special section 7520 annuity factor that takes into account the exhaustion of the trust or fund. This computation would be modified, if appropriate, to take into account annuities with different payment terms.
(ii) Income and similar interests —
(A) Beneficial enjoyment. A standard section 7520 income factor for an ordinary income interest is not to be used to determine the present value of an income or similar interest in trust for a term of years or for the life of one or more individuals unless the effect of the trust, will, or other governing instrument is to provide the income beneficiary with that degree of beneficial enjoyment of the property during the term of the income interest that the principles of the law of trusts accord to a person who is unqualifiedly designated as the income beneficiary of a trust for a similar period of time. This degree of beneficial enjoyment is provided only if it was the transferor's intent, as manifested by the provisions of the governing instrument and the surrounding circumstances, that the trust provide an income interest for the income beneficiary during the specified period of time that is consistent with the value of the trust corpus and with its preservation. In determining whether a trust arrangement evidences that intention, the treatment required or permitted with respect to individual items must be considered in relation to the entire system provided for in the administration of the subject trust. Similarly, in determining the present value of the right to use tangible property (whether or not in trust) for one or more measuring lives or for some other specified period of time, the interest rate component prescribed under section 7520 and § 1.7520-1 of this chapter may not be used unless, during the specified period, the effect of the trust, will or other governing instrument is to provide the beneficiary with that degree of use, possession, and enjoyment of the property during the term of interest that applicable state law accords to a person who is unqualifiedly designated as a life tenant or term holder for a similar period of time.
(B) Diversions of income and corpus. A standard section 7520 income factor for an ordinary income interest may not be used to value an income interest or similar interest in property for a term of years, or for one or more measuring lives, if—
(iii) Remainder and reversionary interests. A standard section 7520 remainder interest factor for an ordinary remainder or reversionary interest may not be used to determine the present value of a remainder or reversionary interest (whether in trust or otherwise) unless, consistent with the preservation and protection that the law of trusts would provide for a person who is unqualifiedly designated as the remainder beneficiary of a trust for a similar duration, the effect of the administrative and dispositive provisions for the interest or interests that precede the remainder or reversionary interest is to assure that the property will be adequately preserved and protected (e.g., from erosion, invasion, depletion, or damage) until the remainder or reversionary interest takes effect in possession and enjoyment. This degree of preservation and protection is provided only if it was the transferor's intent, as manifested by the provisions of the arrangement and the surrounding circumstances, that the entire disposition provide the remainder or reversionary beneficiary with an undiminished interest in the property transferred at the time of the termination of the prior interest.
(iv) Pooled income fund interests. In general, pooled income funds are created and administered to achieve a special rate of return. A beneficial interest in a pooled income fund is not ordinarily valued using a standard section 7520 income or remainder interest factor. The present value of a beneficial interest in a pooled income fund is determined according to rules and special remainder factors prescribed in § 1.642(c)-6 of this chapter and, when applicable, the rules set forth under paragraph (b)(3) of this section if the individual who is the measuring life is terminally ill at the time of the transfer.
(v) Annuity payable from a trust or other limited fund. The present value of an annuity interest (the subject annuity) payable from a trust or other limited fund (the fund) must be determined by taking into account the possibility of exhaustion of the fund. Thus, the present value of any such annuity that will exhaust the fund (and of any other interest dependent on the present value of such an annuity) is determined by using actuarial factors, under the applicable section 7520 mortality and interest rate assumptions, reflecting the term certain period to the exhaustion of the fund. Because it is assumed under the prescribed mortality component, Table 2010CM, that any measuring life may survive past age 109 and until just before age 110, any life annuity could require payments in the person's 110th year. To determine whether a subject annuity that is payable as a level amount paid annually at the end of each year for a life, will exhaust the fund, the annuitant's age must be subtracted from 110 to determine the longest possible duration of the annuity (maximum number of years) under the prescribed mortality table. If the present value of an annuity for the same level payments, payable for a term certain equal to that maximum number of years, is greater than the value of the fund, the annuity is determined to exhaust the fund before the end of that maximum number of years (under the prescribed assumptions), and the present value of the subject annuity is determined on the basis of life annuity factors limited by the period to exhaustion. The period to exhaustion is the shortest period for which the present value of that same annuity payable for a term certain is greater than or equal to the value of the fund, under the prescribed section 7520 interest rate. If the subject annuity is for life (or for a period depending in part on life) and the period to exhaustion is shorter than the longest possible life period, the present value of the subject annuity is determined as the present value of an annuity for the shorter of life or a term of years limited by the period to exhaustion, and the actuarial commutation factors may be used in determining the present value. The actuarial commutation factors can be computed directly by using the formulas in § 25.2512-5(d)(2)(v)(A)(1), the section 7520 rate, and Table 2010CM as set forth in § 20.2031-7(d)(7)(ii) of this chapter. For the convenience of taxpayers, actuarial commutation factors have been computed by the IRS and appear in Table H. The appropriate annuity factors for an annuity payable for a term of years certain is computed by subtracting from 1.000000 the factor for an ordinary remainder interest following the same term certain that is determined under the formula in § 20.2031-7(d)(2)(ii)(A) of this chapter and then dividing the result by the applicable section 7520 interest rate expressed to at least four decimal places. For the convenience of taxpayers, actuarial factors have been computed by the IRS and appear in the “Annuity” column of Table B. Tables B and H can be found on the IRS website at https://www.irs.gov/retirement-plans/actuarial-tables (or a corresponding URL as may be updated from time to time). For an annuity payable for the longer of a life (or lives) or a term of years, the year of the last possible annuity payment is determined based on the later of the end of the term period or the year the youngest measuring life would reach age 110. For an annuity payable for the shorter of a life (or lives) or a term of years, the year of the last possible payment is determined based on the earlier of the end of the term period or the year the youngest measuring life would reach age 110. After determining the point of exhaustion of funds, the approximation method for determining the present value of annuity payments for a life or lives so limited by exhaustion illustrated in the example in paragraph (b)(2)(vi)(E) of this section is to be used if a more exact method (for example, computing the year-by-year present value of each payment until the fund is exhausted) is not used. The selected method must be applied consistently in valuing all interests in the same property.
(vi) Examples. The provisions of this paragraph (b)(2) are illustrated by the following examples:
(A) Example 1. Unproductive property. The donor transfers corporation stock to a trust under the terms of which all of the trust income is payable to A for life. Considering the applicable federal rate under section 7520 and the appropriate life estate factor for a person A's age, the value of A's income interest, if valued under this section, would be $10,000. After A's death, the trust is to terminate and the trust property is to be distributed to B. The trust specifically authorizes, but does not require, the trustee to retain the shares of stock. The corporation has paid no dividends on this stock during the past 5 years, and there is no indication that this policy will change in the near future. Under applicable state law, the corporation is considered to be a sound investment that satisfies fiduciary standards. The facts and circumstances, including applicable state law, indicate that the income beneficiary would not have the legal right to compel the trustee to make the trust corpus productive in conformity with the requirements for a lifetime trust income interest under applicable local law. Therefore, the life income interest in this case is considered nonproductive. Consequently, A's income interest may not be valued actuarially under this section.
(B) Example 2. Beneficiary's right to make trust productive. The facts are the same as in paragraph (b)(2)(vi)(A) of this section (Example 1), except that the trustee is not specifically authorized to retain the shares of corporation stock. Further, the terms of the trust specifically provide that the life income beneficiary may require the trustee to make the trust corpus productive consistent with income yield standards for trusts under applicable state law. Under that law, the minimum rate of income that a productive trust may produce is substantially below the section 7520 interest rate on the valuation date. In this case, because A, the income beneficiary, has the right to compel the trustee to make the trust productive for purposes of applicable local law during A's lifetime, the income interest is considered an ordinary income interest for purposes of this paragraph (b)(2)(vi)(B), and the standard section 7520 life income factor may be used to determine the value of A's income interest. However, in the case of gifts made after October 8, 1990, if the donor was the life income beneficiary, the value of the income interest would be considered to be zero in this situation. See § 25.2702-2.
(C) Example 3. Annuity trust funded with unproductive property. The donor, who is age 60, transfers corporation stock worth $1,000,000 to a trust. The trust will pay a 6 percent ($60,000 per year) annuity in cash or other property to the donor for 10 years or until the donor's prior death. Upon the termination of the trust, the trust property is to be distributed to the donor's child. The section 7520 rate for the month of the transfer is 8.2 percent. The corporation has paid no dividends on the stock during the past 5 years, and there is no indication that this policy will change in the near future. Under applicable state law, the corporation is considered to be a sound investment that satisfies fiduciary standards. Therefore, the trust's sole investment in this corporation is not expected to adversely affect the interest of either the annuity beneficiary or the remainder beneficiary. Considering the 6 percent annuity payout rate and the 8.2 percent section 7520 interest rate, the trust corpus is considered sufficient to pay this annuity for the entire 10-year term of the trust, or even indefinitely. The trust specifically authorizes, but does not require, the trustee to retain the shares of stock. Although it appears that neither beneficiary would be able to compel the trustee to make the trust corpus produce investment income, the annuity interest in this case is considered to be an ordinary annuity interest, and a section 7520 annuity factor may be used to determine the present value of the annuity. In this case, the section 7520 annuity factor would represent the right to receive $1.00 per year for a term of 10 years or the prior death of a person age 60.
(D) Example 4. Unitrust funded with unproductive property. The facts are the same as in paragraph (b)(2)(vi)(C) of this section (Example 3), except that the donor has retained a unitrust interest equal to 7 percent of the value of the trust property, valued as of the beginning of each year. Although the trust corpus is nonincome-producing, the present value of the donor's retained unitrust interest may be determined by using the section 7520 unitrust factor for a term of years or a prior death.
(E) Example 5. Annuity exhausting a trust or other limited fund.
(1) The donor, who is age 60 and in normal health, transfers property worth $1,000,000 to a trust created for this purpose on or after June 1, 2023. The trust will pay a 10 percent ($100,000 per year) annuity to a charitable organization for the life of the donor, payable annually at the end of each year, and the remainder then will be distributed to the donor's child. The trust has no other beneficial interests payable before the end of the annuity. The section 7520 rate for the month of the transfer is 4.4 percent. Under section 7520(a)(2) of the Code, the donor has elected to use the section 7520 rate for the month of transfer. For purposes of this example, the relevant factors from Tables B and H(4.4) are:
Table 1 to Paragraph (b)(2)(vi)(E)(1)
Years | Annuity | Income interest | Remainder |
---|---|---|---|
Factors From Table B | |||
Annuity, Income, and Remainder Interests for a Term Certain | |||
Interest at 4.4 Percent | |||
13 | 9.7423 | 0.428661 | 0.571339 |
14 | 10.2896 | 0.452741 | 0.547259 |
50 | 20.0878 | 0.883862 | 0.116138 |
Factors From Table H(4.4) | |||
Commutation Factors—Based on Table 2010CM | |||
Interest Rate of 4.4 Percent | |||
Age (x) | D_{x} | N_{x}-factor | M_{x}-factor |
60 | 6,694.636 | 90,259.34 | 2,723.225 |
73 | 3,151.228 | 29,432.25 | 1,856.209 |
74 | 2,941.075 | 26,452.50 | 1,777.165 |
(2) First, it is necessary to determine whether the annuity may exhaust the corpus before all planned annuity payments are made. This determination is made by using values from Table B as illustrated in Figure 1 to this paragraph (b)(2)(vi)(E)(2).
Figure 1 to Paragraph (b)(2)(vi)(E)(2)—Illustration of Determining Present Value of Term Certain Annuity
(3) Because the present value of an annuity for a term of 50 years exceeds the corpus, the annuity may exhaust the trust before all payments are made. Consequently, the annuity must be valued as an annuity payable for a term of years or until the prior death of the annuitant, with the term of years determined by the number of years to exhaustion of the fund, assuming earnings at the section 7520 rate of 4.4 percent.
(4) If an annuity of $100,000 payable at the end of each year for a period had an annuity factor of 10.0, it would have a present value exactly equal to the principal available to pay the annuity over the term. The annuity factor for 13 years at 4.4 percent in Table B is 9.7423, so the present value of an annuity of $100,000 at 4.4 percent, payable at the end of each year for 13 years certain, is $100,000 times 9.7423 or $974,230. The annuity factor for 14 years at 4.4 percent is 10.2896, so the present value of an annual annuity of $100,000 per year at 4.4 percent for 14 years certain is $100,000 times 10.2896, or $1,028,960. Therefore, 14 years is the shortest term for which a term certain annuity of $100,000 per year is greater than the fund of $1,000,000. Thus, it is determined, under the prescribed assumptions, that the $1,000,000 initial transfer will be sufficient to make 13 annual payments of $100,000, but not to make the entire 14th payment. Subtracting the present value of the 13-year term certain annuity, $974,230, from the fund of $1,000,000 leaves a remainder of $25,770. Of the initial transfer amount, $25,770 is not needed to make payments for 13 years, so this amount, as accumulated for 14 years, will be available for the final payment. The 14-year accumulation factor at 4.4 percent is 1.827288 ((1 + 0.044)^{14} = 1.827288), so the amount available in 14 years is $25,770 times 1.827288 or $47,089.21. Therefore, for purposes of this present value determination, the subject annuity is treated as being composed of two distinct annuity components. The two annuity components taken together must equal the total annual amount of $100,000. The annual amount of the first annuity component is the exact amount that the trust will have available for the final payment, $47,089.21. The annual amount of the second annuity component then must be $100,000 minus $47,089.21, or $52,910.79. Under the section 7520 assumptions, the initial corpus will be able to make payments of $52,910.79 per year for 13 years, as well as payments of $47,089.21 per year for 14 years. The present value of the subject annuity is computed by adding together the present values of two separate component annuities payable for the shorter of a life or a term.
(5) The actuarial factor for determining the value of the annuity of $52,910.79 per year payable for 13 years or until the prior death of a person aged 60 is derived by the use of factors involving one life and a term of years, derived from Table H. The factor is determined as illustrated in Figure 2 to this paragraph (b)(2)(vi)(E)(5).
Figure 2 to Paragraph (b)(2)(vi)(E)(5)—Illustration of Determining Annuity Factor for Shorter of Life or 13 Years
(6) The actuarial factor for determining the value of the annuity $47,089.21 per year payable for 14 years or until the prior death of a person aged 60 is derived by the use of factors involving one life and a term of years, derived from Table H. The factor is determined as illustrated in Figure 3 to this paragraph (b)(2)(vi)(E)(6).
Figure 3 to Paragraph (b)(2)(vi)(E)(6)—Illustration of Determining Annuity Factor for Shorter of Life or 14 Years
(7) Based on the calculations of paragraph (b)(2)(vi)(E)(5) of this section, the present value of an annuity of $52,910.79 per year payable for 13 years or until the prior death of a person aged 60 is $480,742.15 ($52,910.79 × 9.0859). Based on the calculations of paragraph (b)(2)(vi)(E)(6) of this section, the present value of an annuity of $47,089.21 per year payable for 14 years or until the prior death of a person aged 60 is $448,807.26 ($47,089.21 × 9.5310). Thus, the present value of the charitable annuity interest is the sum of the two component annuities, $929,549.41 ($480,742.15 + $448,807.26).
(3) Mortality component. The mortality component prescribed under section 7520 may not be used to determine the present value of an annuity, income interest, remainder interest, or reversionary interest if an individual who is a measuring life dies or is terminally ill at the time the gift is completed. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(3), an individual who is known to have an incurable illness or other deteriorating physical condition is considered terminally ill if there is at least a 50 percent probability that the individual will die within 1 year. However, if the individual survives for eighteen months or longer after the date the gift is completed, that individual shall be presumed to have not been terminally ill at the date the gift was completed unless the contrary is established by clear and convincing evidence.
(4) Example—terminal illness —
(i) Sample factors from actuarial Table S. The provisions of paragraph (b)(3) of this section are illustrated by the example in paragraph (b)(4)(ii) of this section. The appropriate annuity factor for an annuity payable for the life of one individual is computed by subtracting from 1.00000 the factor for an ordinary remainder interest following the life of the same individual that is determined under the formula in § 20.2031-7(d)(2)(ii)(B) of this chapter and then dividing the result by the applicable section 7520 interest rate expressed to at least four decimal places. For the convenience of taxpayers, actuarial factors have been computed by the IRS and appear in the “Annuity” column of Table S. Table S can be found on the IRS website at https://www.irs.gov/retirement-plans/actuarial-tables. For purposes of the example in paragraph (b)(4)(ii) of this section, the relevant factor from Table S is:
Table 2 to Paragraph (b)(4)(i)
Factors From Table S—Based on Table 2010CM
Age | Annuity | Life estate | Remainder |
---|---|---|---|
Interest at 4.4 Percent | |||
75 | 8.6473 | 0.38048 | 0.61952 |
(ii) Example of donor with terminal illness. The donor transfers property worth $1,000,000 to a child on or after June 1, 2023, in exchange for the child's promise to pay the donor $80,000 per year for the donor's life, payable annually at the end of each period. The section 7520 interest rate for the month of the transfer is 4.4 percent. The donor is age 75 but has been diagnosed with an incurable illness and has at least a 50 percent probability of dying within 1 year. Under Table S, the annuity factor at 4.4 percent for a person age 75 in normal health is 8.6473. Thus, if the donor were not terminally ill, the present value of the annuity would be $691,784 ($80,000 × 8.6473). Assuming the presumption provided in paragraph (b)(3) of this section does not apply, because there is at least a 50 percent probability that the donor will die within 1 year, the standard section 7520 annuity factor may not be used to determine the present value of the donor's annuity interest. Instead, a special section 7520 annuity factor must be computed that takes into account the projection of the donor's actual life expectancy.
(c) Applicability dates. Paragraph (a) of this section is applicable as of May 1, 1989. The provisions of paragraph (b) of this section, except paragraphs (b)(2)(v), (b)(2)(vi)(E), and (b)(4) of this section, are applicable to gifts made after December 13, 1995. Paragraphs (b)(2)(v), (b)(2)(vi)(E), and (b)(4) of this section are applicable to gifts made on or after June 1, 2023.
[T.D. 8540, 59 FR 30177, June 10, 1994, as amended by T.D. 8630, 60 FR 63919, Dec. 13, 1995; T.D. 8819, 64 FR 23228, Apr. 30, 1999; T.D. 8886, 65 FR 36943, June 12, 2000; T.D. 9448, 74 FR 21517, May 7, 2009; T.D. 9540, 76 FR 49642, Aug. 10, 2011; T.D. 9974, 88 FR 37463, June 7, 2023]